Coat of Arms
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky
of Vernadsky CFU


Version for the visually impaired
Main page | Structure | Departments | Department of Ophthalmology | About department

About department

First in the Crimea the Department of Eye Diseases was organized on the basis of the Medical Faculty of Taurida University on 20 November, 1923. It was located in the municipal hospital No. 8 and had 30 beds. Malte S. V. was appointed Chief Doctor. Patok E. I., Mikaelyan S. Kh., Kuznetsov V. A., Zavalevskaya E. V. were assistants and resident physicians. The department became eye care center for population. Its staff carried out prevention, treatment and research. Within 2 years the department was headed by Professor Polev A. I. The department staff studied the role of immunity in eye diseases and developed new methods for the diagnostics and treatment of trachoma. In addition, the department staff gained great practical experience revealing, treating and preventing trachoma in the inhabitants of the Crimean steppe. During these 2 years two classes of medical students graduated from the university, among which three became ophthalmologists: Horovaya V. V., Berg A. M., Vilenskaya F. F.

But unfortunately, 1925 the Medical Faculty was dissolved. Professor Polev A. I. returned to Kiev, other ophthalmologists also leaved the Crimea: Polyak B. L. for Leningrad, Kazas I. I. for Dnepropetrovsk, Mikaelyan S. Kh. for Sverdlovsk. Later they headed the departments of eye diseases in these cities.

On 8 August, 1930 the Crimea State Medical Institute was founded on the basis of the former Medical Faculty at the Taurida University. The Department of Eye Diseases started its work on 8 February, 1935. At that time its clinical site was the Ophthalmology Department in the municipal hospital of Simferopol No. 1 with 25 beds. Until 1941 the clinic was headed by Professor Belsky A. A. 


Malte S. V., Blumenfeld N. O., Gyul-Nazaryan Z. A., Blank R. M. worked as assistants. Gaar R. G., Timoshyna N. A., Fuks M. I. Starodubtseva A. Ya. and others were resident doctors. Their scientific interests were diverse: they carried out research in the field of neurophysiology and physiotherapy of visual organ, studied the actions of tissue specimens and blood transfusion in serious eye diseases. For the first time in the ophthalmological practice mud therapy on the eyelids and application of mud necklace in different eye diseases were used. Before the beginning of the Great Patriotic war 4 Ph. D. theses were written and defended at the department.


In September 1941 the Crimea Medical Institute was evacuated and one and half a month was circulating between Baku, Tbilisi, Krasnovodsk, Dzhambul and Armavir.  In Armavir clinical site of the ophthalmological clinic became evacuation hospital No. 1117. Students who graduated here joined active duty army.

At that time assistant Malte S. V. headed ophthalmological clinic for 7 months.

12 September, 1942 all the professors and students (201persons) arrived in the town of Kzyl-Orda. Here Professor Medvedev N. I. became the head of the clinic. It was located in the district hospital. Blumenfeld N. O. And Nemenko Z. G. worked as assistants. Pavlenko A. A., Sigel M. G. Malashenko I. N. were resident doctors. During1942-43 700 students studied in the institute, and two classes of medical students graduated from the institute in spite of very hard conditions of work. Nonetheless the department staff continued their scientific work. So in 1943 assistant Blumenfeld N. O.defenden her Ph. D. thesis titled “Adrenalin in Treatment of Iritis”.

In August 1944 the Institute returned to Simferopol and continued training doctors for the front. During the years of the Great Patriotic War hundreds of doctors received the diplomas of our institute. Traumas of the war period were the main scientific interest of the department stuff during the years of war and post-war period. Scientific works of the department stuff were devoted to the diagnostics of intraocular foreign bodies and treatment of gun-shot injuries of the eyes. 4 Ph. D. theses became a result of this research. Besides assistant Blumenfeld N. O., the theses were defended also by:

Malte S. V. “Blood Transfusion in the Eye Diseases”(1948);

Nemenko Z. G. “Blood Pressure and Eye Tonus” (1949);

Mazor E. I. “About the Evaluation of the Methods of Surface Anesthesia“ (1950).

Till 1951 15 doctors underwent primary specialization training and completed their clinical residency.


In April 1951 Professor Medvedev N. I. was transferred to Samarkand  and Azarova N. S. became the head of the department. According to the order of the USSR Minister of Public Health she was transferred from the I Moscow Order of Lenin I. M. Sechenov Medical Institute. Along with the Azarova’s arrival to the Crimea pathogenesis of various forms of tuberculous lesions of eyes, its diagnostics and treatment became the main scientific interest in the work of our department for the following 20 years. Ophthalmology Department in the Crimea Medical Institute was very well-known those years. Patients came for treatment from different corners of the USSR and from abroad. Dozens of residents (domestic and foreign) were taught effective methods of diagnostics and treatment of tuberculosis. In the Crimea Azarova N. S. organized the scientific school on the diagnostics and treatment of ocular tuberculosis that was well-known in the USSR and abroad. 3 doctoral and 7 Ph. D. theses were written and defended. In partnership with Yuzafova F. I. And Samoilov A. Ya. Professor Azarova published her monograph “Tuberculous Diseases of Eyes” (1993), which has become the Bible for every ophthalmologist so far. The guidelines “Organizational, Methodical, Diagnostic and Treatment Help for Patients with Metastatic Tuberculosis of Eyes” were published with Azarova’s participation in 1973. Azarova’s Ph. D. thesis was dedicated to “Biomicroscopic and Ophthalmoscopic  Response to Tuberculine in the Diagnostics and Therapy of Metastatic Tuberculosis of Eye” (1944), and the post-doctoral one to “Calcium in the Treatment of Metastatic Tuberculosis of Eye” (1954). During these years the number of beds in the district ophthalmology department reached 50 and yet there were other 15 beds specially for the treatment of metastatic tuberculosis of eyes.


At that time resident doctors were: Malte N. S., Moskovchenko K. P., Belayev V. S., Antipova E. N., Martynova V. F., Shalygina-Dachevskaya N. P., Legon’kih Z. M., Prohoda M. I., Pyatkina G. K., Shanahin B. I., Litvinenko A. G. Later they defended their theses and became Professors, Associate Professor and assistants.

Besides the main scientific interest of the department there were also other scientific directions in work: Associate Professor Malte N. S. studied different aspects of Saki mud in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eyes, assistants Pyatkina G. K. and Legon’kih Z. M. worked on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment methods of toxoplasmosis, assistant Moskovchenko K. P. studied the significance of vascular factor in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, assistant Tihonchuk U. S. studied the embryogenesis of visual organ. The department staff actively took part in the ophthalmological conferences and congresses of different level. From 1952 till 1977 they published 263 scientific articles, 1 monograph (“Tuberculous Diseases of Eyes”, 1963), 4 post-doctoral and 14 Ph. D. theses were written and defended.


• Azarova N. S. “Calcium in the Treatment of Metastatic Tuberculosis of Eye”, 1954;

• Tetina G. F. “Occurrence and Course of Tuberculous Inflammation in Eye”, 1964;

• Malte N. S. “Mud Therapy in Ophthalmology“, 1969;

• Moskovchenko K. P. “Disorders of Carotid Blood Circulation as a Cause Factor of Some Glaucoma Forms“, 1972;


• Moskovchenko K. P. “Trophic Changes of Eyes in Closed Head Injuries“, 1955;

• Malte N. S. “About the Estimation of Domestic Miotics Furamonurn and Phosphacolum“, 1956;

• Belyaev V. S. “Embryonic Cornea as the Material for Keratoplasty”, 1959;

• Legon’kih Z. M. “Diascleral Elimination of Intraocular Foreign Bodies by means of Squamous Flap Dissection of Sclera with Retention Suture“, 1962;

• Pyatkina G. K. “ Focal Tests in the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis“, 1966;

• Efetova T.M. “Anticoagulants in the Treatment of Retinal Vein Thrombosis”, 1968;

• Tikhonchuk Yu. S. “The Development of Human Eyes during the First Three Months” (morphological and histological study), 1971.


Since1971 the department was headed by Professor Tetina G. F.

Through her initiative, the municipal and district ophthalmology departments were integrated into the Crimean Ophthalmology Center in 1974. In 1980 it was transformed into the district children department for 65 beds, and was headed by the district children ophthalmologist Zatvarnitsky O. P. Since 1979 ophthalmology department giving general consultations for the ophthalmic patients, as well as rendering care for patients with glaucoma, for children, and performing ocular prosthetics started its work in the district consultive polyclinic named after Semashko N. A. The Crimean Ophthalmology Center was transformed into the Center of Eye Microsurgery.

26 residents from Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, India, and Lebanon as well as 2 external postgraduates from Syria and India, 2 foreign interns from Nepal and Chad and 58 internship doctors completed their study at the department during this period. 10 doctors from different cities of the USSR and 1 doctor from Mongolia completed their specialty training in ocular tuberculosis. Our department was recognized as the leading one studying pathogenesis and creation of new methods of diagnostics and treatment of ocular tuberculosis.

This period of time 3 Professors (Tetina G. F., Malte N. S., Moskovchekno K. P.) and 4 assistants (Pyatkina G. К.,Tikhonchuk U. S., Litvinenko А. G., Kot О. А.) worked at the department.

Other studies of the department staff were dedicated to the theme: “The Role of Allergic Component in the Diagnostics, Clinical Course and Treatment of Endogenous Uveitis of Different Etiology”. Together with the Department of Pathological Physiology headed by Professor Protsenko V. A. new conception of eye inflammation was developed. It was based on the clinical experimental study of the role of inhibitors of proteolytic ferments in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory eye diseases. Informational letter was published and Ph.D. thesis was defended (assistant Kot О. А.,1990)


Since 1984 Professor Moskovchenko K. P. held the chair. The main theme of studies at the department became the study of the role of external carotid artery in the regular blood circulation of eye and in different pathological conditions, pathogenesis of neovascular glaucoma. During this period of time 5 Ph. D. theses were written and defended:

• Litvinenko А. H. “Water-Darkness Campimetric Test in the Early Diagnostics of Open-Angle Glaucoma (on the basis of long observations)”, 1984.

• Kot О. А. “The Role of Inhibitors of Proteolytic Ferments in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Phacogenic Uveitis (experimental clinical study )”, 1990.

• Kucherenko L. V. “Efficacy of Intra-Arterial Infusion through the Superficial Temporal Artery in Eye Diseases”, 1991.

• Russu А. А. “Anatomic Clinical Study of Collateral Blood Circulation of Eyeball and Orbit according to the Data of Postmortem and Antemortem Carotid Angiography”.

• Anup Raj “The Comparative Study of Epi- and Retrobulbar Blood Circulation in Different Forms of Glaucoma (clinical morphological study)”, 1992.

As a result of these studies the informational letter was published, new surgical approach in neovascular glaucoma was developed (Professor Moskovchenko К.P.) and new method of long infusion therapy through the superficial temporal artery in sever eye lesions was introduced (assistant Kucherenko L. V.). There were dozens of reports at the congresses and scientific conferences of different level, 2 invention certificates, and 7 technical innovations were introduced into the practical public health. Since 1985 the clinical site of the department got the status of the district Center for Eye Microsurgery according to the order of the Minister of Public Health of the USSR.


Since September 1991 Associate Professor Litvinenko A. G. held the chair. The study on the following themes was carried on: “The Role of External Carotid Artery in the Regular Eye Blood Circulation and in Different Pathological Conditions” (through 1993) and “The Study of Efficacy of Spherical Prismatic Correction of Progressive Myopia in Children and Adolescents (through 1996). These studies resulted in 4 Ph. D. theses:

• Kayotkina E. V. “The Condition of Visual Functions in Ametropia, Strabismus in Early Childhood and Its Diagnostic and Treatment”, 1992;

• Ntefe Rami “The Use of Scleral Buckling in Nearsightedness and Degenerative Eye Diseases and Some Aspects of Its Action Mechanism”, 1992;

• Karpov P. M. “Health Resort Rehabilitation of Children with Rheumatoid Uveitis”, 1993;

• Dergalo I. I. “The Study of Efficacy of Spherical Prismatic Correction of Progressive Myopia in Children and Adolescents”, 1996.

Besides, 1 Master’s thesis was defended: “The Study of Therapeutic Action of Injection Biologic Drug Liquorin in Modulation of Cataract in Rabbits” (Tkach T. B., 1995)

Since 1995 the department started to study new theme “The Study of Influence of Superficial Active Substances in the Treatment of Inflammatory Eye Diseases”. 2 Ph. D. theses (external postgraduates Ivanova N. V. and Tityanichenko I. V.) and 2 Master’s theses (Motsar’ E. N. and El-Samad O. V.) were planned and accepted.

On the results of these studies 19 scientific works were published and 10 reports were made  at conferences and congresses of Ukrainian ophthalmologists and those from CIS countries, 1 Ph. D. thesis was defended (external postgraduate Ivanova N. V. “Pathogenetically Based Application of New Immunomodulator Miramistin in Patients with Chronic Conjunctivitis”, 1999). On this theme 3 patents were introduced into practice, 2 Master’s theses were defended (Motsar E. N “The Study of Efficacy of Superficial Active Substances of Miramistin with Antiseptic Purpouse for the Storage of Soft Contact Lenses”, 1997 El-Samad O. V. “The Use of Superficial Active Antiseptic Miramistin during the Premedication of Patients before Intraocular Operations”, 1999).

1999 master’s student Manzhos I. A. defended her thesis “The Influence of Sclera Plastic Surgery on the Progression of Myopic Process”.

At that time the department staff included: honoured Professor of CSMU Litvinenko A. G., the head of teaching department, Associate Professor Kot O. A. and assistants: Kucherenko L. V., Dergalo I. I., Kayotkina E. V., Ivanova N. V., Dembsky L. K. (part-time employee).

19.11.2004 Ivanova N. V. defended her doctoral thesis titled “Pathogenetic Role of Sex Steroid Hormones and Fibronectin in Posttraumatic Reparative Process in the Eye and Efficacy  of Correction of Their Disorders” at the special board in the Scientific Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy named after Filatov V. P., 3 patents and 1 author’s certificate were assigned.

In August 1998, assistant Kucherenko L. V. started to study for a doctorate in the same institute, (theme “Intra-arterial Infusion of Medicines in the Intensive Pathogenetically Oriented Therapy of Severe Eye Burns”). 17.12.04 she passed evaluation test of her post-doctoral thesis at the meeting of the scientific board in the Scientific Research Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy named after Filatov V. P.

Since 2001 Associate Professor Zlobina V. I. and other members of the department stuff studied the role of vegetative nervous system in the pathogenesis and treatment of accommodation cramps in cooperation with neuropathologists. Over the last years new concept of complex treatment of accommodation cramps was developed. In February 2004 Kot O. A. obtained an author’s certificate on in the invention: “The Scheme of Complex Treatment of Accommodation Cramps after the Method of Kot O. A.”

2004 “Practicum on Eye Diseases for the Independent Work of Students in the 5 Year of Study” under the edition of Kot O. A. was published in the University Publishing Center.

Over the last years 7 scientists were assigned author’s certificates for their inventions and Professors Ivanova N. V. and Bobrova N. F. worked out and prepared for publishing guidelines for ophthalmologists “The Use of Sex Steroid Hormones in the Complex Treatment of Patients with Penetrating Eye Injuries” (2005). 


Since April 2006 Professor Ivanova N. V. is the head of the Department for Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology. The new theme of research that is intensively studied at the department is titled: “The Immune and Endocrine Disorders in Ophthalmic Pathologies”.

Yarosheva N. A. defended her Ph. D. thesis titled “Endothelial Dysfunction of Retinal Vessels in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy and Efficacy of Treatment of the Revealed Disorders” (2010).

6 other Ph. D. theses are planned and are being written now under the guidance of Professor Ivanova N. V., and 1 postdoctoral thesis is also being written at present under the guidance of Associate Professor Kopaenko A. I.

The following master’s students successfully defended their works: 

Kazakova N. E. “Prognostic Significance of Enzymes in Tears during the Post-Operative Period in Children Operated on for Strabismus, Shortsightedness and Congenital Cataracts (clinical study)”.

Yui Chzhymin “Clinical Morphological Characteristics of Influence of Various Concentrations of Bronchoalveolar Protective Complex on the Conjunctiva of Rabbits”.

Krugov A. V. “The Use of Brimonal in the Therapy of Normal Tension Glaucoma”.

Usmanova A. U. “Neuroprotective Action of Neurovitan in the Complex Treatment of Open Angle Glaucoma”.

Ogbi D. O. «Effectiveness of Ocuvite Lutein Forte in Treatment of Glaucoma Optic Neuropathy».

Besides master’s student dozens of interns, resident physicians, family doctors and future military physicians follow postgraduate courses and pass evaluation examinations at the department each year.

The department staff actively takes part in the conferences and congresses of the Ukrainian and European ophthalmologists, carry out joint clinical studies of new preparations. The scientific work is carried out in cooperation with the members of the departments for Biology, Immunology, Endocrinology, Obstetrics and Gynecology No. 2. The works of the department staff are published in foreign magazines, digests, quoted in new monographs and magazine articles.


It has become a good tradition to hold a research and practice conference on the basis of the department with the international participation “Azovskiye chtenia” (Simferopol, Sudak).

Over the years of its existence the department staff has carried out a great work. They made a significant contribution to the study of actual issues in Ophthalmology such as: tuberculous and toxoplasmatic eye lesions, eye injuries, vascular forms of glaucoma, shortsightedness, embryogenesis of eyes, balneotherapeutics in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, they developed inhibitory therapy for the inflammatory diseases of eyes and intra-arterial infusion therapy of severe eye lesions, complex therapy of accommodation cramps.

The department staff has prepared thousands of medical practitioners of different specialties, dozens of thousands of patients were rendered high quality consultations and treatment.

The most significant contribution to the development of the department was made by Professors Azarova N. S., Tetina G. F., Malte N. S. and Moskovchenko K. P. Through their efforts the Crimean Scientific School of Ophthalmologists was founded. At present, almost all the Crimean ophthalmologists (over 100 doctors) are followers of well-known scientists. The result of long scientific research of our department staff includes over 700 scientific publications, several dozens of author’s certificates and innovation proposals, 8 post-doctoral and 27 Ph.D. theses.

©2006-2018 Development and support – Information–Analytical Department
At using the materials the reference to the source is obligatory.
Design by SOFTSOUL.