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Main page | Structure | Departments | Department of Histology and Embryology | Materials for students | Modul 1 | CARTILAGE. TENDON.

1) CARTILAGE as an ORGAN on the cross section is composed of 2 layers:
A)  Perichondrium is composed of 2 layers:1) Outer, or FIBROUS layer. Is composed of  fibres and blood VESSELs. Funct.: TROPHIC funct. for cart. proper. 2) Inner, or CELLULAR layer. Is composed of chondrogenic cells (or PREchondroblasts). Funct. This layer and its CHONDROGENIC cs provides APPOSITIONAL growth of cartilage.
B)  Cartilage proper is composed of usual cartilage TISSUE, but does NOT have blood VESSELS.
Injury of perichondrium leads to destruction and death of cartilage proper.
( NO perichondrium in: hyaline cart. of articular surfaces; fibrocartilage)
Cartilage TISSUE is composed of 2 components:
a) Cartilage CELLS and b) EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.(=ECM) between cells.
ECM  is composed of 2 components:
1)GROUND substance(glycosaminoglycans + PROTEOGLYCANs +glycoproteins) and 2) FIBRES.
If ECM contains 2 types of fibres – collagen fibres and ELASTIC fibres, it is ELASTIC cartilage. 
If ECM contains ONLY collagen fibres with it MOST amount – it is FIBROCARTILAGE.
If ECM contains ONLY collagen fibres with it  MODERATE amount- it is HYALINE cartilage.
Differon of cartilage cells: SCLEROTOM of SOMITE - Mesenchyme - Chondrogenic cs (PREchondroblasts) - Chondroblasts - Chondrocytes (it are definitive).
Chondroblasts and Chondrocytes – are ECM-producing cells. Funct.: secretion of : GAGs and PROTEOGLYCANs (for ground substance); protein collagen /and elastin (for fibres formation).
Production of ECM and mitotic division of chondrocytes provide appositional growth of cart. 
Cartilage PROPER on cross section is composed 2 zones:
  1. Zone of YOUNG (or growing) cartilage. It contains single-arranged chondroBLASTS + ECM.
  2. Zone of MATURE cartilage. Is composed of ISOGENOUS GROUPs of chondroCYTES+ECM.
ISOGENOUS group – is composed of 2-4  chondroCYTES, locating in common cavity, named LACUNA. Funct.: zone of mature cartilage and its  ISOGENOUS groups – is origin of interstitial growth of cartilage (by means of mitotic division and secretion of ECM).
LOCATION in organism:
ELASTIC cartilage in: a) PINNA (auricle), b) auditory tube, c) LARYNX
HYALINE cartilage in:
a) ARTICULAR SURFACES of long bones (NO perichondrium),
b) junction between rib and sternum,
c) EPIPHYSEAL PLATE of long bone BEFORE 18-20 years. It provides elongation  of long bones. After 20 years PLATE is CALCIFIED and body growth is stopped,
d) early EMBRYO SKELETON is composed hyaline cart.,
e) semirings of TRACHEA and rings of main BRONCHI.
FIBROCARTILAGE (NO perichondrium) in: a) INTERVERTEBRAL DISKs,  b) pubic symphysis. 
Age changes: after 50 years cart. in intervetebral disks and on articular surfaces  undergoes  to CALCIFICATION and become  pathologically FRAGILE instead usually resilience property.
It is composed of: a) DENSE REGULAR connective tiss. (mainly) and
b) loose IRregular connective tiss (=LICT) -additionally.
a) DENSE REGULAR connective tiss.  presented by: thick BUNDLES of collagen fibres, arranged PARALLELLY.
b) Thin layers of LICT  between bundles, named endotendineum and peritendineum, carry blood vessels and fulfil TROPHIC funct. in tendon.
DENSE REGULAR connective tiss. also locates in LIGAMENTs.
DENSE IRregular connective tiss. locates in: RETICULAR layer of skin dermis; CAPSULES, surrounding spleen, kidney. Collagen fibres in it arranged NOT parallelly, forming meshwork.
Составитель – доцент В.В. Бондаренко.
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