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Main page | Structure | Departments | Department of Histology and Embryology | Materials for students | Modul 2 | FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. UTERUS. MAMMARY GLAND.

                                            FEMALE  REPRODUCTIVE  SYSTEM.
                                                        UTERUS (hister, metra).=(U.)
   Wall of U. is composed of  3 tunics:     1)ENDOMETRIUM =tun. mucosa
             2)MYOMETRIUM =tun. muscularis             3)PERIMETRIUM = tun. serosa 
 ENDOMETRIUM is composed of  2 tissues :1)simple columnar epithelium,
     2) lamina propria  (loose irreg. conn, tiss. + straight arteries  + spiral, or helical, arteries  ).
Epithelium forms UTERINE GLANDS – tubular invaginations of epithelium in lam.propria.
Epithel. cells, located in glands secretory portion (or gland bottom) –   is BASAL layer.
 Epithel. cells, located in glands ducts and between glands –        is FUNCTIONAL layer.
Straight arteries supply basal layer,  spiral arteries supply functional layer.
              OVARIAN-MENSTRUAL cycle is 28-day cycle  = (OMC).
1st day of OMCis 1st day of uterine , or MENSRUAL, BLEEDING.  4th day of OMCis LAST day of menstrual hemorragie.   14th  day correspondes to OVULATION.  28th day correspondes to
ISCHEMIA  and  NECROSIS  of functional layer.
1st phase of OMC – is MENSTRUAL phase (phase of DESQUAMATION). Since 1st till 4th day.
2nd  phase of OMC – is POSTMENSTRUAL phase (PROLIFERATIVE phase). Days 5th  to 14th.  
3rd  phase of OMC – is SECRETORY phase (LUTEAL phase). Days 15th to 28th.
1st, MENSTRUAL phase: a)bleeding from ruptured spiral arteries,   b)NECROTIC functional layer is discharged (or, desquamated).     2nd, PROLIFERATIVE phase. Events in ovary: active FOLLICULOGENESIS happens, leading to formation of secondary and Graafian follicles. It secrete ESTROGENS.   It  stimulate proliferation (mitosis) of epithelium in BASAL layer,
 leading to REGENERATION of  functional layer, of uterine glands, of spiral arteries. 
    3rd , SECRETORY phase:  after OVULATION on day 14th  CORPUS LUTEUM is developed. During 3rd phase it secretes PROGESTERON. It causes appearance in uterine glands 2 cell types: ciliated cells and secretory cells. During 3rd phase glands SECRETE uterine fluid (mixture of proteins and glycosaminoglycans). Fibroblasts of lamina propria diff. in predecidual cells (a lot of glycogen in cytoplasm). Spiral arteries become maximally developed. During day 27th of OMC corpus luteum undergoes of involution. It causes decreasing of progesterone level, leading to CONSTRICTION of spiral arteries, ischemia and necrosis of functional layer.
       MYOMETRIUM is composed of : Smooth muscle cells +endomysium + many ARTERIES.
Smooth muscle cells form 3 layers: a)inner and outer are longitudinal, b)middle is circular  and richly
VASCULARIZED (arcuate arteries).   Regeneration :after wide  dissection of myometrium (cesarien section), new smooth muscle cells in zone of operation are NOT developed. But wounded surface is replaced by  collagen  SCAR.            Oxytocin stimulates myometrium contraction.
       PERIMETRIUM = tun. serosa. (loose irregular connect. tiss. + MESOTHELIUM). 
                                                       MAMMARY GLAND.=(MG).
1) LACTATING  MG – is milk-secreting gland. It is composed of:1)15-20 LOBES, 2)collagenous connective tissue+adipose tissue between lobes. These 2 tissues form stroma of MG. Lobe -  is compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland and is composed of glandular epithelium. It is parenchyma of MG. Each gland has 2 portions :1) secretory portion (or, ALVEOLUS) and    2) lactiferous excretory duct.
ALVEOLUS has 2 layers of cells :a)inner presented by ALVEOLAR secretory cell (COLUMNAR epithelial cell with abundance of  rER and lipid droplets). Funct.:secretion of milk components (casein, lipids, lactose), b)outer is comp. of MYOEPITHELIAL cells. It are STAR-shaped (with processes). Funct.: contraction. In lactating MG  parenchyma (ALVEOLI) quantitively predominate above stroma.
  Prolactin stimulates milk synthesis in alveolar cell.   Oxytocin stimulates milk ejection.
 2) NONlactating (resting) MG of nonpregnant women.   It structure is similar to lactating MG: (LOBES, stroma,  lactiferous excretory ductuli…)   BUT:  Stroma quantitively predominates above parenchyma (too much collagenous connective tissue+ adipose tissue). Parenchyme presented by one component only – by system of  lactiferous  ductuli.         ALVEOLI are ABSENT.
 Составитель – доцент В.В. Бондаренко.
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