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Main page | Structure | Departments | Department of Histology and Embryology | Materials for students | Modul 2 | FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. OVARY. OVIDUCT.

OVARY = (O).
O. is composed of: 1) tunica albuginea (dense regular connect. tiss), 2) CORTEX,
3)medulla (vessels +nerves).
CORTEX is composed of: 1)Stroma (loose iirreg. connec. tiss.) 2) FOLLICLES =(F.),
3) CORPUS LUTEUM, 4) Corpus albicans, 5) Atretic body.
Cyclic events in coretx, or OVARIAN CYCLE, include:1) Folliculogenesis – growth of follicles from primordial untill Graafian , – it is follicular phase, 2) Development and involution of corpus luteum, – it is luteal phase, 3) OVULATION- is  rupture of Graafian F. and releasing of
secondary oocyte into uterine tube.  It happens 1 time per 28 days.
Types of  follicles: 1) PRIMORDIAL F. – a) primary oocyte+ b) simple squamous follicular
epithelium. 2) PRIMARY F. - a) primary oocyte+ b) simple CUBOIDAL follicular epithelium+c) undifferentiated theca, 3) SECONDARY F. - a) primary oocyte+ b) STRATIFIED cuboidal follicular epithelium+c) theca interna (interstitial endocrine cell+capill.),+d) theca externa (loose irreg. connec. tiss.)+e) follicular CAVITY (or, antrum). Stratified follicular epithelium (or, zona granulosa) is composed of GRANULOSA cells. Funct.: secretion of hormones ESTROGENS.
4) Graafian (or, tertiary, or MATURE) F.- a) SECONDARY oocyte+ b)+ c)+ d)+e) - See “SECONDARY fol.” Graafian follicle undergoes ovulation.
Remnants of Graafian F. after ovulation form CORPUS LUTEUM = (C.L.). It is spherical association of LUTEIN cells +collagen scar in centre. LUTEIN cells contain LUTEIN (YELLOW PIGMENT) in it cytoplasm. Funct.: LUTEIN cells (and C.L.) secrete hormone PROGESTERONE.
C.L. is TEMPORARY endocrine gland in ovary. It life span in nonpregnant women is only 14 days after ovulation. It is menstrual corpus luteum.
ONLY antral (secondary and Graafian) follicles with STRATIFIED zona granulosa secrete ESTROGENS.
99% of follicles undergo ATRESIA – it is death of oocyte and granulosa cells by apoptosis and
proliferation of theca interna endocrine cells, resulting in formation of atretic body.
Summary: there are 2 groops of ovarian hormones: 1) ESTROGENS and 2) PROGESTERON.
Target for both hormones is uterine ENDOMETRIUM.
Combined cyclic changes in OVARY and ENDOMETRIUM is -
Folliculogenesis, resulting in production of graafian follicles, is stimulated by hormone FSH.
OVULATION is stimulated by hormone LH.
It lumen contains viscous fluid.
It wall is composed of: 1) Tunica mucosa, 2) Tunica muscularis, 3) Tunica serosa.
T. MUCOSA is composed of : a) simple columnar ciliated epithelium, b) lamina propia (l.i.c.t.).
Epithelium has 2 cell types: 1) CILIATED cells – are columnar with apical CILIA.
Funct.: beats of cilia move blastocyst and tube fluid toward uterus.
2) nonciliated PEG cells – are columnar with apical secretory GRANULES. Funct.: secrete viscous fluid into tube lumen. This fluid provides:
a) maintains spermatozoa and secondary oocyte (and blastocyst after fertilization) in alive state,
b) capacitation of spermatozoa (removal of glycocalyx from head).
T. muscularis – 2 layers of smooth muscle cells a)inner- circular, b) outer – longitudinal.
T. serosa is - loose irregular connect. tiss.+MESOTHELIUM.
Tube is place of next events: 1) apacitation, 2) ERTILISATION, 3) LEVEAGE,
4) LASTOCYST formation and it movement toward uterus.
Follicular epithelial cells (zona granulosa) and theca interna endocrine cells are developed from
epithelium of MESONEPHROS tubules. Epithelium of fallopian tube – from mesoderm portion, amed PARAMESONEPHRIC duct (or Muller duct).
Составитель – доцент В.В. Бондаренко.
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