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Main page | Structure | Departments | Department of Histology and Embryology | Materials for students | Modul 1 | BLOOD.

Blood is composed of: 1)formed elements and 2) plasma
Formed elements include 3 types:
1) Erythrocytes (red blood cells=RBCs), 2) Leukocytes, 3) Platelets (or thrombocytes).
  1.  Erythrocyte is not cell, because nucleus is absent.  It has biconcave shape and is composed of: a) plasma membrane and b) cytoplasm. Cytoplasm filled by protein HEMOGLOBIN (Hb). Funct.:it transports O2 and CO2 ( respiratory function).
  1. All leukocytes contain 1 nucleus. Classification:
If cytoplasm contains specific (or secondary) granules and nucleus is multilobed – it is groop of GRANULOCYTES. If cytoplasm does NOT contain specific granules – it is groop of AGRANULOCYTES.


Granulocytes include 3 types. a) If granules in cytoplasm  are blue coloured – it are BASOPHILS.
 b) If granules in cytoplasm are pink coloured - it are EOSINOPHILS.
 c) If granules in cytoplasm are pink-violett coloured - it are NEUTROPHILS.
Basophils in granules contain HEPARIN and HISTAMINE. Funct.:it: a)prevent blood coagulation, b)increase allergic reactions and inflammation.
Eosinophils in granules contain enzyme HISTAMINASE and ANTIPARASITIC protein.
Funct.: it: a) reduce allergic reactions, b) kill parasitic worms.
Neutrophils. in granules contain bactericidic enzyme LYSOZYME. Funct.of neutrophils: phagocytosis of bacteria and its killing.


Agranulocytes include 2 types: a) if nucleus is ROUND-shaped and cytoplasm reveals thin rim – it are LYMPHOCYTES. b) If nucleus is BEAN- shaped – it are MONOCYTES.
Lymphocytes include 2 types: a) T - lymphocytes and b) B-lymphocytes.
T-lymphocytes include 2 types:
a) T-HELPER cells and b) T-KILLER cells (or T-CYTOTOXIC).
Funct. of T-killer cells (or T-CYTOTOXIC): - it eliminate 3 targets: 1) cancer cells, 2) virus-infected cells, 3) transplanted organ (or graft).
Funct. of B-lymphocytes: it differentiate into PLASMA cells. Funct. of plasma cells: it secrete 5 classes of IMMUNOGLOBULINS (IGs, or ANTIBODIES).
Funct. of monocytes: it exit from vessels into loose irregular connective tissue and differentiate into tissue macrophages.
  1. PLATELETS (or thrombocytes).
Platelets are not cells, because nucleus is absent. Cytoplasm is composed of 2 zones:a) central part is GRANULOMERE, b) periphery is HYALOMERE. Granulomere is composed of alpha – and delta granules. Granules contain thromboplastin and ADP. Funct.: after rupture of vessel platelets initiate blood coagulation and STOP bleeding.
Куратор темы – доцент В.В. Бондаренко.
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